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 Queen of Sheba found?

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BerichtOnderwerp: Queen of Sheba found?   wo jul 04, 2007 8:39 am

Onderstaand artikel vond ik op de website van Creation Ministries International.

The Queen of Sheba: was Solomon visited by an Egyptian pharaoh?



by Ryan Jaroncyk

Photo Charles Verrier. Released under GFDL

A carved Sphinx with the face of Hatshepsut–Located in the Cairo Museum

The identity of the Queen of Sheba has been a mystery to archaeological and historical scholars. Last year, David Down and John Ashton wrote Unwrapping the Pharaohs: How Egyptian Archaeology Confirms the Biblical Timeline, in which they propose a revised chronology that harmonizes Egyptian and Old Testament history. Correctly placed in a revised chronology, there is a significant amount of circumstantial evidence to identify the biblical Queen of Sheba as the most famous female pharaoh, Queen Hatshepsut (whose mummy may have just been found—see addendum added 28 June 2007.)

When given a chance, the Bible proves to be a remarkably accurate book of history.
Down and Ashton are not the only scholars calling for a significant revision of Egyptian history. The secular archaeologist David Rohl, author of Test of Time, suggests ‘Ramses II should be dated to the tenth century BC—some three hundred and fifty years later than the date which had been assigned him in the orthodox chronology.’1 Peter James and four other scholars published the book Centuries of Darkness.2 They claim that the dates of Egyptian dynasties need to be reduced by hundreds of years, specifically Dynasties 21–24. Dr. Renfrew, professor of archaeology at Cambridge University, wrote in his foreword to this book:




<BLOCKQUOTE>‘This disquieting book draws attention … to a crucial period in world history, and to the very shaky nature of the dating, the whole chronological framework, upon which our current interpretations rest … the existing chronologies for that crucial phase in human history are in error by several centuries, and that, in consequence, history will have to be rewritten.’3 </BLOCKQUOTE>

The historical reliability of the Bible, beginning with the Book of Genesis, is one of the most vital issues facing the Christian church today. If we cannot trust the Bible to be accurate in its historical documentation of real events in the past, then how can it be trusted in spiritual matters? The Lord Jesus Christ put the question to Nicodemus in John 3:12—‘If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things?’
The Queen of Sheba can be accurately identified by cross referencing the historical records of ancient Egypt, the Old Testament, the first century historian Josephus, and the New Testament. Once all of the evidence is assessed, it is highly likely that the Queen of Sheba was Queen Hatshepsut, the most powerful woman to ever rule Egypt.
Hatshepsut’s family background



Photo Hajor. Released under GFDL

Memorial Temple of Pharaoh Hatshepsut, Deir el Bahari, West Thebes, Egypt

Hatshepsut, the daughter of Thutmosis I, reigned over a prosperous Egypt for possibly up to twenty-two years. In the traditional chronology, Hatshepsut lived during the 15th century BC, but in the revised chronology, she lived and reigned during the 10th century BC.4 Hatshepsut married her half-brother Thutmosis II, but this marriage produced no sons. However, Thutmosis II married a secondary wife who bore a son named Thutmosis III. When Thutmosis III was about twelve years old his father died, leaving his stepmother, Hatshepsut, regent of Egypt. In one of the most perplexing episodes of Egyptian history, Hatshepsut eventually proclaimed herself to be the Pharaoh of Egypt even though Thutmosis III was legally entitled to the throne. Gay Robins, an art history professor at Emory University, wrote ‘We can never be sure why Hatshepsut defied tradition and became king, nor why the male bureaucracy tolerated this aberration…’5 After a long and prosperous reign, Hatshepsut died and Thutmosis III became Pharaoh. Thutmosis III would eventually transform Egypt into one of the world’s most powerful empires.
Glory of Hatshepsut


Hatshepsut was depicted in statues as having ‘a slender build with an attractive oval face, a high forehead, almond shaped eyes, a delicate pointed chin … a certain feminine softness.’6 In typical royal vanity, she wrote about herself, ‘Exceeding good to look upon, with the form and spirit of a god … a beautiful maiden, fresh, serene of nature, altogether divine.’7
She erected two pairs of obelisks in the temple of Karnak. One of these is still standing in Egypt today at a record-breaking 29 metres (97 feet) tall. She also built an extraordinary temple at Deir el Bahri on the west bank of the Nile. On the wall of this magnificent temple, artists depicted Hatshepsut’s historic expedition to the ‘Land of Punt’. It is this expedition that leads us to the biblical record of the Queen of Sheba’s visit to King Solomon (1 Kings 10:1–13, 2 Chronicles 9:1–12).
Mysteries of Punt and Sheba


Historians have long debated the exact location of Punt. Based on the animals and plants depicted in the temple relief at Deir el Bahri, many scholars believe Punt was a region or nation in East Africa. Likewise, scholars have debated the identity and location of Sheba. Some scholars believe that it was a kingdom located in either Ethiopia or Yemen. However, a few Egyptian inscriptions, the Old Testament, Josephus, and the New Testament give us greater clarity as to the locations of Punt and Sheba.
Mysteries solved


In Hatshepsut’s inscriptions she refers to the land of Punt as ‘God’s Land.’8 At least one Egyptian inscription refers to Punt being north of Egypt,9 in Palestine. This is consistent with the biblical account in which she visited Solomon in Jerusalem. Josephus, the famous first-century historian, writes:



<BLOCKQUOTE>‘There was then a woman, queen of Egypt and Ethiopia … When this queen heard of the virtue and prudence of Solomon, she had a great mind to see him … Accordingly she came to Jerusalem with great splendor and rich furniture.’10 </BLOCKQUOTE>

In Matthew 12:42, the Lord Jesus Christ says:



<BLOCKQUOTE>‘The queen of the South will rise up in the judgment with this generation and condemn it, for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and indeed a greater than Solomon is here’ (see also Luke 11:31).
</BLOCKQUOTE>
Therefore, it is almost certain that the Queen of Sheba hailed from the land of Egypt.
African plants and animals


Many protest that Punt had to be an East African nation because of the native animals featured on Hatshepsut’s temple relief. Her relief shows trees being carried on poles, piles of frankincense, myrrh, gold, incense, ivory, ebony, and monkeys. How could Solomon give these precious African items and animals to the queen when he lived in Jerusalem? A closer look at the biblical text resolves this apparent discrepancy. Apparently, King Solomon had a naval fleet that imported gold, almug trees, precious stones, gold and silver, ivory, peacocks, and apes (monkeys in some translations) from outside of Israel (1 Kings 10:11,22). Some scholars believe Solomon imported these flora, fauna, and metals from the northeastern region of Africa. On Hatshepsut’s relief, scribes write ‘Never were brought such things to any king since the world was.’8 This corroborates 1 Kings 10:13 which states:



<BLOCKQUOTE>‘And King Solomon gave to the queen of Sheba all that she desired, whatever she asked besides what was given her by the bounty of King Solomon. So she turned and went back to her own land with her servants.’ </BLOCKQUOTE>

Conclusion


When given a chance, the Bible proves to be a remarkably accurate book of history. Clifford Wilson, former director of the Australian Institute of Archaeology, once said, ‘The Bible is the most accurate history textbook the world has ever seen.’11 Its historical reliability has often surprised historians and archaeologists. And the authority of Scripture begins with the book of Genesis. The historical accounts of a recent creation, the fall of man, the origin of death and suffering, the global flood, and the Tower of Babel are critical in understanding the true history of the world.
Addendum: Queen of Sheba’s mummy found?


Egyptian antiquities chief Zahi Hawass claims to have identified the mummy of Hatshepsut as a ‘fat woman in her 50s who probably died of cancer’, from a missing tooth and CAT scans. See Bad tooth solves mystery of Egypt’s pharaoh queen, as well as Dr Hawass’s own account, The Search for Hatshepsut and the Discovery of her Mummy. Return to top
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  • Searching for Moses
  • The walls of Jericho
  • Has the Ark of the Covenant been found?
  • The pyramids of ancient Egypt
  • False History—‘out with David and Solomon!’

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Unwrapping the Pharaohs: How Egyptian Archaeology Confirms The Biblical Timeline

by John Ashton & David Down

Adults and children alike have been fascinated with the Egyptian civilization for decades, but most modern archaeologists have lately tried to use Egyptian chronology to dispute the biblical record of Joseph, Moses and the Exodus. This exciting new Egyptian chronology gives remarkable evidence for the truth of the biblical accounts. Beautiful colour photographs and illustrations complement this intriguing new chronology and really give life to this ancient and advanced civilization whose skill in building the pyramids still mystifies architects and scientists. It is also an appealing and informative read for anyone who is interested in Egyptian civilization and the reign of the pharaohs.

References





  1. Rohl, D., A Test of Time: The Bible: from Myth to History, Century Limited, London, UK, p. 128, 1995; see also review by Osgood, J., Journal of Creation 11(1):33–35, 1997. Return to Text
  2. James, P., Centuries of Darkness, Pimlico, London, UK, pp. XV–XVI, 1992. Return to Text
  3. James, ref. 2, p. 39. Return to Text
  4. Ashton, J. and Down, D. Unwrapping the Pharaohs: How Egyptian Archaeology Confirms The Biblical Timeline, Master Books, Green Forest, AR, p. 116, 2006. Return to Text
  5. Robins, G., Women in Ancient Egypt, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, p. 47, 1993. Return to Text
  6. Tyldesley, Hatchepsut the Female Pharaoh, p. 130. Return to Text
  7. Steindorff and Steele, When Egypt Ruled the East, p. 41. Return to Text
  8. Ashton and Down, ref. 4, p. 122. Return to Text
  9. Schott, P, Les chants d’amour dans l’Egypte ancien, p. 97. Return to Text
  10. Whiston, Josephus’ Complete Works, Antiquities of the Jews, VIII, VI, p. 5. Return to Text
  11. Wilson, C, Archaeologist Speaks Out, Creation 21(1):15, 1998. Return to Text

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BerichtOnderwerp: Re: Queen of Sheba found?   do jul 05, 2007 4:58 am

Uit jouw bron blijkt dat, hoewel er tenminste 1 inscriptie vertelt dat Put Palestina zou zijn, er meerdere mogelijkheden zijn welk land dit is.

De koningin zou veel geschenken hebben gekregen, die niet in Palestina te krijgen waren. De oplossing: Salomo was zo rijk, hij kon die goederen importeren.

Ook de bijbel vertelt ons dat Salomo erg rijk was. De koningin van Seba zei tegen Salomo : Uw wijsheid en welvaart zijn nog veel groter dan wordt gezegd. (1 kon. 10:7)

Maar er is één groot probleem. Salomo heeft hoogstwaarschijnlijk wel echt bestaan, maar de manier waarop de bijbel hem beschrijft klopt niet. Hij was namelijk helemaal niet rijk.
De stallen van Megiddo, Gezer en Hasur die werden toegeschreven aan Salomo, bleken na dateringen van na zijn tijd te zijn. De aan hem toegeschreven paleizen zijn gedateerd tot na de 10e eeuw, lang na Salomo. Er is geen enkel spoor van alfabetisme onder het volk (wat zou wijzen op welvaart), er is geen enkel geschreven document gevonden, zelfs niet op potscherven. Ook is er geen enkel monumentale architectuur gevonden. Uit onderzoek bleek dat de stad niet dichtbevolkt was en dat de steden klein waren (i.t.t. 1 kon. 5:1).
(bron: bijbel als mythe, geschreven door 2 joodse archeologen)

Dus Salomo kon onmogelijk de koningin zoveel kostbare geschenken geven. Genoeg reden om aan te nemen dat dit of niet de koningin was waarover de bijbel had, of dat Put niet Palestina was.
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